Numerous portrait heads of Livia in marble are known. The fragmentary head in the Metropolitan Museum of Art is representative of the type. However, the black basalt head in the Louvre is a closer comparison to the present bronze bust both in terms of appearance and general style. Our bronze has survived in remarkably fresh condition, and has not suffered from over cleaning or modern interventions. It is important to note that very few bronze likenesses of this Empress, wife of Augustus, are attested. This particular depiction of Livia can be viewed as a political statement showing her as the faithful and dignified matrona that she was, if not as the wise and privileged adviser to her husband. Our bronze can be considered one of the best representations of the Empress known to date.